participative media : emerging editorial models on Internet.
cases of Agoravox and the French version of Wikipedia ».
Lionel Barbe >>> Download the communication (French)
Université Paris 2 - Institut Français de Presse,
An article drawn from the magazine Nature has recently shown that
Wikipedia, the free Encyclopedia on Internet, is offering articles
which quality could be compared to those contained in the Encyclopedia
Britannica. Besides, the citizen journalism website Agoravox, launched
by Joel de Rosnay and Carlo Revelli, is becoming very successful.
How do the editorial models of those citizen media work? How do they manage to
Wikipedia and Agoravox have in common a participative editorial
model. Indeed, they do not hire professional journalists nor editors.
They only rely on the voluntary participation of citizens, providing
them with content, generating dynamism on a collective level. In
that respect, Wikipedia and Agoravox do offer alternative publishing
and editing concepts, based on self-written and self-regulated contents.
According to their detractors, if the collective websites can spread
the information in a very efficent way they can also constitute the
ideal window that propagates rumors or manipulation attempts. Their
strength lies in their free and quick publication of information.
As a consequence, they can be easily diverted by people whose motivation
is not to inform nor express ideas. In fact, their freedom to publish
information is in fact more limited than it seems to be. The self-regulation,
practised before the publication of the information (Agoravox) or
after (Wikipedia), tends to avoid the drifts or abuses.
It is now acknowledged that those participative websites do prefigure
a new editorial model which is not centralized on a pyramidal concept.
They rely on each person as a consumer and creator of the media content
itself. Nevertheless, the self-regulation is mainly practised by “super
users” whose power and commitment have widely surpassed common
users prerogatives. Moreover, they contribute to a collective recognition
which goes beyond a mere altruistic behaviour.
In that respect, are the citizen media really what they are supposed
to be? Don’t they risk to become more and more professionalized
and evolve towards a hierarchical and classical model? Would their
egalitarian purpose be able to resist their transformation into a
«Journalistic criticism of
DVDs : a second chance for the French cinematographic criticism?»
Annick Batard >>> Download the communication (french)
Université Paris 13 - LABSIC, MSH Paris Nord, France
Following our examination of the importane of newspaper criticism
in the identification of CD-ROMs as cultural products, this paper
focuses on the criticism of French video DVDs. In it, we question
the birth of DVD criticism in non-specialized newspapers as well
as the form such criticism takes, and its evolution compared
to traditional literary criticism. We consider DVDs to be to films
what paperbacks are to hardbacks : a second market to a first product.
There are other element to be taken into account as well. A DVD (the
acronym for "Digital Versatile Disc") contains sound, text
and image. It is possible to distinguish a "video DVD" from
a "DVD-Rom", but newspapers usually just talk about "DVDs",
meaning a disc containing a film along with an additional program
(often a bonus "making-of" the film). The term "bonus" may
sound as if referring to a mere-by product, but it not always the
case. DVDs are also mainly reveiwed by film critics, although not
exclusively. Other specialists (such as classical music critics,
for example) or multimedia specialists dabble in it too. In this
paper, we point out how the criticism of DVDs follows other traditional
types of criticism, as well as that of new multimedia cultural products.We
also underline some DVD criticism specificities. Like traditional
criticism, DVD reviewing sums up and assesses the content of the
program burned on the disc. Technical criteria put forward in the
criticism of the CD-ROMs are also used in the DVDs criticism. In
terms of productions, DVDs and their criticism waver between reintroducing
forgotten pieces, and collecting titles from a single, more or less
famous, director. As far as reception is concerned, DVDs and their
criticsim waver between almost esoteric pieces or extremely famous
«Emergence and circulation
of new objects in the field of cultural industries through the
analysis of the uses of the podcast»
Camille Brachet >>> Download the communication (French)
Université Paris 4-Sorbonne - Celsa, France
The recent observable changes affecting the culture, information
and communications industries allowed the development of new cultural
products. I will focus on a type of object in particular, the "podcast",
in order to show how the propagation of a marginal practice gave
rise to the emergence of a new industry of audio-visual contents.
Exploiting the possibilities offered by the Internet, users regularly
produce new objects such as the "blog", the "audioblog",
the "podcast", as well as new practices like "podcasting",
and ceaselessly make them evolve.
These objects and their contents interrelate and circulate in a
macrostructure managed by one microcommunity (usually called "blogosphere"),
to extend to a broader sphere. Before any analysis, it seems essential
to begin with a quick definition of the studied objects: what is "podcasting"?
What are its observable variations? The term "podcasting" comes
from the combination of "iPod" (walkman MP3 marketed by
APPLE) and of "broadcasting". It is a system of diffusion
and aggregation of audio contents intended for the walkmans, such
as the iPod.
By adding technologies necessary to the automatic remote downloading
of audio and video files, "podcasting" was conveyed by
the "blogs": "blogs" also enable their authors
to publish their audio or video files themselves; "podcasting" now
makes it possible to download writing, audio, and video automatically
into micro-computers and walkmans. From all these forms, one can
also distinguish the "audioblogs", i.e. "blogs" featuring
audio-visual contents. It is finally a tool (Ipod) associated to
a technology that allowed the emergence of a new object conveying
new cultural contents.
This new mode of diffusion and consumption of contents then circulated
to reach a widened sphere, until its commercial reappropriation,
which itself gave rise to new uses. It is more specifically these
uses and their stakes that I propose to analyse in my communication.
Various technologies combine to build a new multi-media object, hybrid,
shaped through usage, borrowing from the new media as well as from
the traditional ones. Today, there are roughly two great kinds of "podcasts":
those of the private individuals and those of the media. Indeed,
one can witness a very fast recuperation of this new way of consuming
contents, first by radios, then by television channels. The consumption
modes of mass media are thus redistributed, the listener evolving
from a flow consumption to a select consumption. Practices change
and contents necessarily adapt. On the basis of observations carried
out on the Internet, I propose to outline these new practices and
their effects on the audio-visual landscape.
«The flow of televised programs by Bittorrent networks :
Birth, structuration, uses and influences
Aurélien Le Foulgoc >>> Download the communication (french)
Université de Paris 2 - Institut Français de Presse,
A new way to consume television has emerged with the growth of access
to the Internet. It represents a new pressure of user communities
on entertainment industries. The purpose of Bittorrent protocol (a
new branch of peer to peer networks) is to distribute huge
files quickly and easily. It is particularly suited to video files,
which are especially heavy. How is this new peer to peer network
organized? What types of contents are exchanged? Does this new access
to foreign programs lead to a greater standardization of viewer consumption?
Television has been facing deep technical transformations during the last few
years, especially due to the growing power of networks and computers. This leads
to a new flow and consumption of televised programs. The quick and easy access
to a greater variety of programs constitutes a new challenge and induces a new
balance of power between the industry and the viewers. I intend to show how a
new network has emerged with the combination of three elements : digital
personal video recorders (like TIVO), the quality growth of the Internet
access and the success of Bittorrent protocol. From trendy series to
talk-shows, a new exchange economy gives access to a globalized content, which
remains essentially dominated by the USA, Canada and England. This domination
can be explained by the origin of two technical processes developed in the USA.
Entertainment industries (particularly the MPAA) have taken the lead in fighting
this way to share content. But a commercial movement funded on Bittorrent is
gradually appearing. This is the case of the BBC and ABC, which offer contents
distributed by Bittorrent. This commercial assimilation is a token of
acceptance of the qualities of this protocol. It generates two trends :
the first is official, the second illegal. In parallel, journalists are
influenced by this new profusion of images and by this facility of access. In
fact, different types of public watch these programs : viewers who enjoy
series directly downloaded from the USA, and journalists who use this illegal
access professionally, and are therefore under influence.
My study will initially be socio-discursive: I will demonstrate
how and why this phenomenon appeared in the USA. The approach will
then be structural, in order to show the organisation of this program
flow (websites, suppliers, viewers.) With a websites study, I intend
to show the nature of the flow, the country of origin and the regularity
of distribution. A new program grid emerges, made by the public that
consumes these programs. It is also important to study the nationality
of downloaders. In the case of France, I will question the influence
on some journalists who use this flow to produce their information.
Indeed, this could be a new way to influence journalistic practices.
It is because this new flow impacts the media system that it is
important to question it today. The appearance of Jon Stewart (the
Host of Comedy Central’s Daily Show) on the show Crossfire on
CNN constitutes a real break, because more viewers watched it by Bittorrent than
by the traditional broadcast. In France, more and more viewers catch
trendy series, that feature French subtitles in order to make for
a more comfortable consumption and a larger audience. This has a
growing impact on the international program market, but also on the
organization of the media system and on journalistic practices.
«A typological essay of the
online information producers strategies»
Nikos Smyrnaios >>> Download the communication (french)
Université Stendhal-Grenoble 3, GRESEC, France
The producers of online information are firms which operate in the
process of collect and treatement of the news, in accordance with
journalistic criteria, and diffuse it on the internet.
In spite of their relative heterogeneity, these economic agents
are caracterised by some specific elements which make possible a
comparative analysis. Their speciality resides in the editorial segment
of the online information, in opposition to the technical aspects
which constitute the activity of the intermediaries such as portals
and search engines. Moreover, these actors have some difficulties
in termes of profitability. Actually, for the majority of them, their
internet activity is economically deficient.
Our presentation proposes a typology of the strategies adopted by
the online information producers in their effort to adapt to the
competition in the digital environement. The typologie presents itself
- The dominant mainstream press
The strategy adopted by the dominant mainstream press in France is
based on user subscription as well as important investments in
the editorial field. The media firms concerned by this model are
prestigious journals which try to enhance the value of their original
content in order to combine financial resources in provenance of
publicity and subscriptions.
- The second order mainstream press
The journals of this category are as prestigious as the precedent
ones but dispose of less financial means, a factor that diminishes
their editorial investements. Because of this, they tend to rely
only on publicity which is unsufficiant for profitability. In this
case the economic model choice is forced because of the lack of
resources in order to create and develop a subscription plateforme.
- The commercial TV channels
A particularly succesful economic model of the passage to the internet
is that of some commercial french channels. Indeed, in this case
selling revenus for online services such as games and exclusive
video content is added to the publicity revenus providing a large
basis for commercial developement. The essential commodity of these
firms, upon which is built their online activity, is their offline
- The “showcase” editors
In this case the firms that edit information sites have a main activity
which consists in providing various services in counceling or communication.
The editing activity, which is basically economically deficient, plays the
role of “showcase” providing prestige and attracting clients for
the main expertise of the firms.
- The transnational firmes
The transnational firms were the first ones to apply the convergence
principle, adopting a reticulum organisational structure and a
strategy of editorial means mutualisation. Their objective being
to produce a standardised content which can be diffused in various
channels, including the internet.