International conference organised by MSH Paris Nord, MSH des Alpes, MSH d'Aquitaine, MSH de Paris, MSH Nord-Pas de Calais
and Gricis Université du Québec à Montréal, within the ACI programme
« Les mutations des industries de la culture, de l’information et de la communication : bilan, cartographie, observation ».
  Workshop 2.1 - Workshop 2.2 - Workshop 2.3 - Workshop 2.4 - Workshop 2.5
   
Workshop 2.5 CMIs : changes in capitalism, social and ideological changes
 
  Chairman :
- Jean-Guy Lacroix, University of Quebec in Montreal, GRICIS, Canada

Speakers :
Nathalie Boucher-Petrovic, Université Paris 13, MSH Paris Nord, France
«Citizenship, public sphere and information and communication technologies ; popular education's transformations »
>>> Download the communication (French)

Marie Brandewinder, Université Rennes 1 - CRAPE, France
« Editorial consultants as importers of economic and professional models: overlap between the magazine press and the daily press »
>>> Download the communication (French)

Yvan Renou, Damien Rousselière, Université Grenoble 2 - LEPII, France
«Networks in the manufacturing sector in the light of management practices in the cultural industry: towards a « creative » and « cognitive » paradigm?” »
>>> Download the communication (French)

Rafaël Rosa Hagemeyer, Centro Universitário Positivo, Brazil
«Cultural diversity in the consciousness of the World Social Forum»

Catherine Venica, Université Paris 8, MSH Paris Nord, France
«Marketing of cultural consumption and production»

   
 

«Citizenship, public sphere and information and communication technologies ;
popular education's transformations »

Nathalie Boucher-Petrovic
Université Paris 13, MSH Paris Nord, France

>>> Download the communication (French)

Given the increased concentration of mass media, information and communication technologies offer an opportunity to expand places of exchange, debate and interaction i.e. the public sphere. These ongoing transformations generate new modes of citizen participation in public life.

In a general sense there is a certain need to restore the meaning of democracy as well as there is a new demand: the re-appropriation of the public sphere by the citizens, which asks for a renewal of expression and debate modalities within the public sphere. In correlation, and highlighting theses changes, popular education is back in the public debate. This notion resonates within the specific context defined by a fragmented public sphere, an economical and social crisis as well as by the public institutions being brought into question. 

Within this context, the role of popular education, as a process which aims for the citizen participation in the common public sphere and their emancipation, is being questioned again. The current transformations within the field of popular education and its reorganization around questions linked to alterglobalisation, information and communication networks as well as new forms of participation in the public sphere highlights the issues around the so-called "information society" within the field of popular education.  Similarly, the arguments of the people promoting the so-called “information society” echo back the dreams and ideals of popular education activists. The development of citizenship, the spreading of knowledge, cultural democritization… ideas for which they have been fighting for, would find new opportunities through information and communication technologies. Free software movement and the new tools for expression and collaboration (in particular wikis and weblogs) appear like the technical equivalent of sharing and cooperation; values that are so important for popular education activists.

Thus, the challenges of the so-called "information society" allows the values, that are important for popular education activits, to be updated as well as traditional practices to be renewed. Similarly, popular education is being brought into question by the new tools. In this context, we have noticed a will of revitalising the historical project in the light of the contemporary issues, and a reorganization of the popular education field. The re-appropriation of themes related to the information society appears like one of the strategies of re-legitimating and updating the popular education historical project.

In correlation to these structural changes, numerous initiatives aiming to develop citizenship and strengthen democracy appear, often outside the instituted spaces. Citizen's expertise, knowledge sharing, weblogs, alternative medias, wikis, social forums: these emerging practices create new spaces to experiment democracy and puts into question, in their turn, the institutionalised and historical popular education field.

« Editorial consultants as importers of economic and professional models: overlap between the magazine press and the daily press »

Marie Brandewinder
Université Rennes 1 - CRAPE, France

>>> Download the communication (French)

In the French press, the daily press is traditionally opposed to the magazine press, not only on editorial criteria (frequency of publication, topics and treatment), but also on economic (proportion of sales / advertisement in the income) and organisational (internal/external editorial staff) models, and at last on professional models. The daily press, which was long considered as the dominating pole, sets out to defend the peculiarity of the press towards the other medias, and within the press, the peculiarity of each paper; on the other hand, the magazine press, long dominated, where titles are gathered in international groups, where methods and models circulate between titles, medias, when not between economic domains.

Since a few years, a deep change occurs in this balance; the daily press yields to the magazine press its model-prescribing role, content and organisation wise.

In that context, we focus on the consultants who help daily papers redefining their editorial line. The recourse to these consultants, until recently limited to the magazine press, spreads to the whole field, and they appear to be an important link in these evolutions. They are by trajectory and position privileged importers of models: their credibility among directions who order theses missions is built on their experience in other domains of press, medias, or activity, according to the type of consultant. But their go-between position, specific to the consulting function, requires that they are also legitimate among editorial staff, targeted by the missions, to which they bring new ways of working, and a new conception of journalism. They both reveal and convey the evolutions of the whole press in France.      


«Networks in the manufacturing sector in the light of management practices in the cultural industry: towards a « creative » and « cognitive » paradigm?”»

Yvan Renou, Damien Rousselière
Université Grenoble 2 - LEPII, Franc
e

>>> Download the communication (French)

This article aims at studying the new coordination devices of the “innovation based capitalism” by confronting them to the practices observed in the cultural sector (Menger, 2002). At first, we characterize the organisations of the cultural sector as “blurred” and “latent” (Starkey et alii, 2000). We demonstrate that these latter appear to be “specific” and relatively “steady” rather than “hybrid” and “unfinished”. Then, we analyse the way that several automotive constructors succeed in coordinating productive activities within vertical networks. We show important variations between american and japanese networks by studying the norms of governance that are implemented during the design process. More broadly, we advance that the new coordination devices observed within the modern organisations attest the emergence of a new “paradigm” : as the most productive organisations are “ambiguous”, “emotional” and “temporal” (M.J. Hatch, 1999), it is necessary – if we want to understand the reasons of their efficacity – to adopt a paradigm that integrates in a coherent way different dimensions of the actor’s coordination (cognitive, creative and moral). In so doing, we recognize that it is necessary to develop a critical approach of the “instrumentalist” analysis of modern organizations (Williamson, 1985).

«Cultural diversity in the consciousness of the World Social Forum»

Rafaël Rosa Hagemeyer
Centro Universitário Positivo, Brazil


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«Marketing of cultural consumption and production »

Catherine Venica
Université Paris 8, MSH Paris Nord, France

This communication focuses on relations between marketing and both consumption and cultural production. We studied works and papers written by academics and professionals about cultural marketing for 1980. Then we compared this “cultural marketing”, with marketing practices, mainly used for books and movies. Common opinion reports direct feedback between the observation of consumer’s behaviour and the activities of those who design, produce and distribute cultural goods. When analysing the appropriation of marketing tools, anyone can note the limit of marketing control under both consumers and cultural industries.

The studied literature underlines that marketers have to adapt themselves to the specificity of cultural institutions, rarely considered as industries. According to these authors, marketers should rather find consumers for products than manage artistic staff and tell them how to proceed. Moreover, this literature recognises that traditional knowledge about consumer’s behaviour is useless to understand cultural consumption. The consumer is told to enjoy an “individual experiment” and the artist as well. 

In contradiction to these considerations, marketing tools can be ranged according to two ways of linking consumers and producers:

  1. first through a codification process of "works of art-products" and lived "works of art", connecting various groups or consumers' segments to categories of cultural offers,
  2. and then through avoided, cooperative or competitive logics between mechanisms of marketing differentiation (by the prices, distribution, promotion, etc.) and the industrial strategies.

Few data were collected in this paper. Nevertheless, they bring some insights on how massive and selective broadcasting of various ranges of cultural property are being bundled and codified for an individual access to consumers.