International conference organised by MSH Paris Nord, MSH des Alpes, MSH d'Aquitaine, MSH de Paris, MSH Nord-Pas de Calais
and Gricis Université du Québec à Montréal, within the ACI programme
« Les mutations des industries de la culture, de l’information et de la communication : bilan, cartographie, observation ».
  Workshop 2.1 - Workshop 2.2 - Workshop 2.3 - Workshop 2.4 - Workshop 2.5
   
Workshop 2.1 Public Policies, industrial lobbying and the internationalization of the CMI
   
  Chairman :
- Tristan Mattelart, University Paris 2, MSH Paris Nord, France

Speakers :
Alexandre Bohas, Université Paris 1 - Panthéon-Sorbonne, France
«The MPA : The Global Diplomacy of Hollywood»

Frédéric Depétris, CNRS, IEP de Paris, France
« The contemporary evolution of film policies in France: between neo-corporatism and globalization »

Veva Leye, Fund for Scientifiic Research-Flanders - Ghent University, Belgique
« Critical discursive assessment activities in the sphere of culture and communication at the international level UNESCO), link to ideological alignment with neoliberalism at UN »

Iona Popa, CNRS - Institut des Sciences Sociales du Politique, France
« Transformations in international books distribution. Exchanges between Eastern Europe and France at the beginning of the 1990s »

   
 

«The MPA : The Global Diplomacy of Hollywood»

Alexandre Bohas
Université Paris 1 - Panthéon-Sorbonne, France

Organisation gathering the seven major studios – that are Buena Vista, Sony Pictures, Paramount, Warner Bros., Metro Goldwyn Mayer, Universal Studios et 20th Century Fox– the Motion Picture Association coordinates their global policies. It strives to preserve and extend the world-cinema where American films dominate. Settled in more than 124 countries, it structures, indeed markets in order to lastingly assure a global predominance. To do so, it benefits capacities of action which confer it the power of the studios. Impacting as much socio-economic spheres as governments, its means consist of diverse measures from promotion campaign to coercion, including pressures exerted jointly with the U.S. Congress.
 
The pre-eminent representative of Hollywood will be analysed through two cases which demonstrate its transnational position: On the one hand, the implementation of free trade in the cultural domain and on the other hand, the respect for intellectual property. The examination of this foreign policy allows the study of interfirm alliances. In addition, it leads to a study of critical situations in which these professionals acted more particularly during trade negotiations for example.

It is also crucial to back track the socio-genesis of the MPA which practices changed with the growth of foreign direct investments and the evolution of international system. While its activity depended in the past on the interstate game, its initiatives rely on the goodwill of U.S. diplomacy no longer. If the latter remains a partner concerned with the thriving of its cinema, the MPA deals now directly with national authorities and opposes sometimes the approach adopted by U.S. trade representatives. In other words, it acquired autonomy towards Washington.

This research will give rise to interviews which we want to conduct with leaders of this association in Los Angeles and its representation in Brussels. Besides, this spokesman of Hollywood companies is often consulted by national government during hearings which are published. Moreover, it will be observed through the media. As a lobby group, it manifests in the specialised press such as Variety. Finally, its operations conducted around the world are usually reported in local newspapers.

 

« The contemporary evolution of film policies in France: between neo-corporatism and globalization »

Frédéric Depétris
CNRS, IEP de Paris, France

This paper deals with the study of dynamics in French cinema policies, in which the intimate neo-corporatist relationship between the professionals of the film industry and the state plays a major role. The study reveals the links existing between aesthetic, social and political transformations of the cinematographic environment, as well as the change of the state action’s referential. Furthermore, the paper puts in perspective the contemporary evolution of cinema policies in France, characterized by deep changes associated with the growing influence of television and new industries of communication, but also resulting from europeanization of national policies, as well as from the globalization of trade and culture.

Indeed, few industries occupy as central a position within the debate surrounding the regulation of globalisation and international trade as the film and television industries. Film and television production and distribution have proven time and again to be sensitive matter.

Such sensitivities partly reflect the high economic value of the trade in audiovisual goods and services. However, film and television sit alongside a range of broader concerns about national culture, language, the internal dialogue within countries and the self-perception of national populations. Although the US entertainment industry has consistently rejected attempts to pose the debate over the regulation of audiovisual trade in such terms, for the majority of the US’ trading partners, and especially the European countries, the defence of national audiovisual production is an expression of national sovereignty and cultural autonomy.

In spite of the European Commission’s commitment to create a huge market of images in Europe, political processes and mobilisations ended in some alternative measures such as those known as “cultural exception” or “cultural diversity” policies. This cultural exception refers to the European Union (EU). Europe matters, but how? Are the mechanisms of change within the EU exclusively market-oriented? Or do different domestic political structures ‘refract’ Europeanization in different directions? In fact, the type of discourses used to justify economic and institutional adaptations is crucial in terms of legitimacy. France, for example, has not been able to create a discourse justifying the process of economic liberalization triggered by EU decisions. The adaptation to European policy has been justified in terms of protection from globalization and Americanization, but this makes many liberalizing choices (obviously in the area of public utilities and culture) difficult to accept. Thus, the paper underlines the film policies changes in France in the broader context of Europeanization.

« Royalties, music usages and creative freedom: from local debates to international stakes »

Veva Leye
Fund for Scientifiic Research-Flanders - Ghent University, Belgique

Waiting for abstract

 

« Transformations in international books distribution.
Exchanges between Eastern Europe and France at the beginning of the 1990s »

Iona Popa
CNRS - Institut des Sciences Sociales du Politique, France

Waiting for abstract