news services – competitors to the printed newspaper »
Ester Appelgren >>> Download
The Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Suède
The December 2005 issue of Newspaper Techniques - the international
magazine of newspaper strategy, business and technology addresses
the issue of a second generation of new media, denoted as “new
new media”. In the above mentioned article Northrup (2005)
states “Now publishers have a new set of new media to master,
such as video, podcasting, mobile and epaper”(p.1). In
an out-of-date reference book on New Media (Pettersson, 1986),
one of the suggested “new new media” technologies, ”video” was
included in the long list of new media. Thus video was considered
as new both in 1986 and in 2005, however in different contexts.
New media or contemporary new media is seldom completely “new” but
rather combined characteristics of old media (van Dijk, 2004).
This is also discussed by Bolter and Grusin (2001), suggesting
the concept of re-mediation to be “the formal logic by
which new media refashion prior media forms”.
New media is thus obviously a continuously evolving time-dependent
concept. Rogers (2003) suggests that an innovation is an idea,
habit or an object that is perceived as new by an individual. However,
the actual newness of the idea, measured objectively in time, is
of minor importance for the individuals’ reactions to the
idea. Hence, according to Rogers, for the publishers, traditionally
having worked with printed media, video can be regarded as new
Researchers as well as industry representatives have ever since
on-line newspaper editions were introduced on the market discussed
them in terms of potential threats or as complements to the printed
editions of the newspapers. As new digital editions of the newspapers
continuously have been launched on the market, the threat to the
printed edition may have increased further.
In this paper, four digital news media services have been analyzed;
the on-line news paper edition, web TV news services, news podcasting
services and news blogs. The four services all contain elements
One of the objectives of the paper is to investigate whether the
interactive aspects of new digital news media services are the
core of the potential threat towards the printed edition. Furthermore,
the paper will discuss the newness of new media forms such as interactive
news services. When do such services stop being new and how important
is it for their success to be perceived as such as they are much
depending on a critical mass of users?
The results have been obtained using a combination of quantitative
and qualitative methods. Literature on and available statistics
on both sales and usage of the four new media news services have
been analyzed. A survey have been carried out with early users
of the selected new media news services, with the purpose to discuss
the usage of the interactive aspects of the services. Deep interviews
with experts of the respective services have been carried out.
The paper consists of an introduction to the area of digital news
media services, background of the selected four communication channels,
presentation of statistics regarding usage of the four selected
services, results from the focus groups and interviews, discussion
of the results with emphasis on the newness of new media and interactivity
in relation to being potential threats to the traditional media,
conclusions of the paper and suggestions for future research.
«The Children’s Culture
Industry and Globalization: Shifts in the Commodity Character of
Wilfrid Laurier University, Brantford Campus, Canada
Whether it’s lamented, celebrated or merely noted, the Children’s
Culture Industry is widely seen as having undergone a significant
transformation in the last quarter century. Numerous scholars have
drawn attention to the ways in which global capital’s control
of key cultural resources for children (namely toys and media, or
the media-toy hybrid) has drawn children into a more intensive and
extensive relationship with the marketplace.
One influential articulation of the “commodification of childhood” position
understands this change as fostering a greater differentiation between
adult and childish desires. Whatever the drawbacks, suggests Gary
Cross, as the toy industry has become increasingly tied to the logic
of the market, toys have moved away from representing the values
and messages of the adult world. Mattel’s introduction of Barbie
in 1959, the argument goes, signaled the beginning of a trend – accelerated
during the 1980s and 1990s when toy advertisers essentially cut out
the middle-mom and aimed their messages directly at children – in
which toys appeal to a child’s unfettered imagination, expressing
their innermost needs and desires.
This paper challenges Cross’ thesis, suggesting that he and
others focus unduly on the features of toys – a focus that
fails to consider how adult messages have changed (not simply disappeared)
over the years. Rather, I argue, a more coherent understanding of
the nature of the changes wrought by the globalization and commodification
of the Children’s Culture Industry is possible by focusing
on the current specificities of the toys’ commodified form.
Here I am referring primarily to the way in which the production
of toys is implicated in a veritable fashion cycle.
Toys have long been creatures of the market. What’s important
about the “commoditoy” industry (Beryl Langer’s
term for toys that stimulate, rather than satisfy, longing by urging
children to consume an endless array of add-ons, accessories and/or
theme-related media products) is the way in which toys – and
the children on behalf of whom they’re bought – are drawn
into an endlessly expansive fashion cycle in which, following Walter
Benjamin, the quest for novelty (not play) becomes an end in itself.
And if, at the same time, as Benjamin suggests, the only truly novel
experience is death, it is not surprising that so called “clash
toys,” violent video games, and fashion dolls (all of which
can be interpreted as brushing up against mortality in one way or
another) dominate the toy market.
To push the Benjaminian framework even further on these issues,
it is arguable that commoditoys implicate children in a collective
trance, inspiring or strengthening a subconscious belief in the mythic
powers of capitalism. But play (in particular, the cognitive mode
implied by play), as Benjamin saw it, has a special place in breaking
free from that myth. For this reason, it is at least worth questioning
the extent to which the transformation of the Children’s Culture
Industry is capable of fully colonizing children’s hearts and
«Cybooks and the publishing
the communication (French)
Université Paul Verlaine - Metz, France
In 1998, Cytale, founded by Jacques Attali, has been the first company
in France aiming to migrate reading to the digital world. Noting
on the one hand the success of digital music, on the other hand nomad
lifestyles, Cytale creates in 2001 an electronic book: “Cybook” tablets
are consumer electronics intended for great readers, expatriates,
seniors and travellers. However, the marketing is a spectacular failure,
to be compared with the expectations and the dreams, notably sustained
by the press, that this device had created as a prototype.
It may be attempting the impossible to try to appeal to reading
lovers with consumer electronics: in 2000, no one conceives a
priori the electronic book as an invitation to read. Hybrid
between a book and a computer, the Cybook is a new device that doesn’t
look like the one or the other at first sight. Thus, it is a difficult
task to give a clear interpretation of this invention, as distributors
among others in the marketing area experience it.
The general public mostly prefers the printed book. And the electronic
device faces some resistance revealing the referential status of
the printed book in the collective imagination. Thus the novel appears
incompatible with the screen, despite some experimentations led in
libraries attesting the contrary.
Cytale fails in these attempts and is led to negotiate the device
with the partially sighted. In this case, the Cybook becomes an artefact
which gives a new and a truly unique access to a cultural field.
Rather than mutation, we should better talk about the creation of
new usages. And Cytale has created, there, a successful mediation.
From this standpoint, the Cybook has succeeded in “translating” the
needs of specific customers, and we can’t say that this device
was stillborn. So, has Cytale been led by blindness, in such a way
that the company has been unable to change its marketing policy?
Has Cytale been weakened by a loose network weaved with its main
partners? Even if the decision process is sometimes long, compared
to the short lifetime of the company, we can reply to all these questions
in the negative. Cytale is not the result of absurd decisions. The
fall of Cytale, which in France symbolizes the end (or the break)
of an idea, can’t be explained by a single cause. Indeed, it
is the result of the conjunction of a series of actions and judgments,
linked to the company and / or to the world in which it was living.
This is what we intend to explain. Our study will thus cast a new
light on the current editorial strategies led by Amazon and Google
in the United States, and by Sony in Japan in the field of a new
kind of electronic book, hybrid between the sheet and the screen.
«New means of distribution of contemporary
musical works at Radio France»
the communication (French)
Université Saint-Denis-Paris 8, CICM/MSH Paris Nord, France
Radio France is a vital media service in France as it represents
the hopes of cultural and technological action’s development
set up by authorities. For the Presences festival, Radio France objective
is to help musical creation, by broadcasting it live or pre-recorded
and organizing free concerts within the firm, represented by its
assorted orchestras, its chor and its “Maîtrise”.
The Presences festival offers to the public a variety of national
and international personalities, representative of the musical composition
circle, with about 20 creations per year featuring the best performers.
The festival has been an important channel for contemporary music’s
transmissions in France for the last fifteen years. Created in 1991
by Claude Samuel, it was an avant-gardist musical fair, structured
to promote musical creation from conception to broadcast.
In addition, there is the Electronic Presences festival, created
in 2005, issued from the INA-GRM label, which presents the electro-acoustic
version of the classics as well as the new electronic trends in musical
In this work, we will study the new means of contemporary musical
creation's broadcast within Radio France framework and both Presences
Festival and Electronic Presences festival. Until today, the traditional
means of airing were through radios such as France Music, France
Culture, in addition to the announcements made on France inter, France
Info, Fip and Mouv. In 2004, new transmission techniques, using the
Internet, have been implemented, and then proposed to the audience
1/ Radio on the Internet, thereby with an international span.
2/ Podcast, which allows the listeners to choose their programs and
thus personalize their radio.
Firstly, we need to gauge the impact of these new means of broadcast
on contemporary musical creation: Is the audience better informed,
wider? Are the classics listened to more often? Are the classification,
transmission and distribution any better? What about the showcase?
From the composers, performers and music editor’s point of
view on the one hand and the politician’s on the other hand:
What about copyrights?
Secondly, we need to appraise how these new techniques can give
a revival in the airing and aesthetic autonomy of the contemporary
musical creation. The latter has not been industrialized yet and
has few chances to become so. Unlike the plastic art’s market,
it concerns a limited audience and exists thanks to the authority’s
cultural involvement. This work is based on researches for our university
thesis, entitled "The new means of musical creation’s
broadcast", which asks among others the following questions:
*) In which terms can we speak of musical airing?
*) Does broadcast necessarily implies an oeuvre’s industrialization?
*) What is the actual cultural policy implemented by the authorities?
In other words, what are the possible connections between art, industry
and broadcast; and how can we develop other ways of musical creation’s
airing - beyond the industry and its economic models - connected
to it, communication’s progress and the transformations they
«Analysis of the strategies
of Specialized Information Industries»
Sicomor, Centre de recherche de l’IAE, Université Jean
Moulin, Lyon 3, France
the communication (E.Thivant French)
Sicomor, Centre de recherche de l’IAE, Université Jean
Moulin, Lyon 3, France
This article deals with strategies of industrialization and modes
of development for specialized information’s industries such
as the financial information industries in front of the globalization
of the economy. After presenting the main economical models of development
for Cultural and Media Industries (CMI), such as the editorial’s
or the stream’s model, we work on the hypothesis that this
specialized information industry uses specific strategies of developments,
contributing to stimulate the Cultural and Media Industries theories.
Using a constructivist framework, we analyze the development policies
of the main actors of this industry, from a strategic, sociological
and technological point of view, by taking into account the market’s
reality, the technological evolution, the markets’ deregulation
and the failures and the successes of vertical and horizontal mergers
on this sector. The specialized information enterprises become more
industrialized on this market and capital-intensive. In other words
this research concerns the evolution of the media capitalism (capitalism
belonging to the sphere of media) and the strategies of new media
in an fragmented public space and in the impact of new technological
standard to explain the dynamic of this sector.
« Electronic media in the Arab World:
towards a new information and communication industry?
the communication (French)
Université Stendhal - Grenoble 3 - GRESEC, France
Our communication, based on a research in information communication
sciences, try to discuss about the mergence of the online newspapers
in Maghreb (Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia).
Our ambition is to analyse the development of print newspapers to
Internet and to clarify the specificities and the economic model
of these media and cultural industries.
We try to answer these questions: Does reading online newspapers
actually substitute reading traditional newspapers? What’s
the economic model of online newspapers in Maghreb? What are the
financial resources of these kinds of newspapers?
Our studies expose that population, show that reading online newspapers
harms using print newspapers among the young, but does not substitute
the use of the print newspaper or other media or the time spent on
them. On the contrary: Online newspaper readers use some information
channels more often and more extensively, even after other plausible
reasons for media use are controlled for. And they regard printed
newspapers as still better suited for their information needs.
Concerning the economic model of these media industry, we can say
that online newspapers are based on the advertising and the resources
of the print newspapers. Although subscription are forecast to constitute
the future of online news publishing by the media executives interviewed,
advertising still accounts for the majority of their online revenue.
Actually, online newspapers in Maghreb countries are in the period
of experimentation, their economic model and their readers are not
stable and their stability will be clear in the long time and not
immediately. To summer up, online newspapers are a prolongation and
an association of print newspapers. Like the majority of online newspapers
in the world, the content of these publications are similar than
print newspapers, the mergence of economic model of these media can
be evaluated with the audiences and the uses but in the long time.