products and services: the lessons for research into the CMI ?»
University Paris 13, MSH Paris Nord, France
Why do technological industrialisation and valorisation modes observed
in educational fields benefit understanding of mutations taking place
in Cultural industries and Information and Communication Industry
Observing virtual universities platforms, campuses and e-learning processes leads
to alternatives questioning, diverging from usual propositions such as the
notion of radical change (machine replacing teachers) or classical approaches
(class room focused). These two propositions have been proven sterile since they
do not prove themselves in enough usages or tend to discard pertinent technical
potentialities or research for efficiency.
The nature of educational processes (learner centered processes,
heterogeneous applications and audiences which make the mass effect
uncertain, non for profit applications, Applications that cannot
be reduced to industrial product production and the multi-dimension
of educational processes and systems) forces actors who invest in
educational technology to face numerous problems that some ICIC industry
managers face today. These innovators are looking for new configurations
that combine two originally distinct industrial models: the cultural
industries’ publishing and the services industries’ mediation
model. Their aim is to issue a new model taking the two others into
Although sometimes hardly emerging, four new tendencies can be described:
- Customized learning ideally based upon the learner autonomy granted
by the use of ICTs. This choice encompasses the entire work chain:
degree of openness of resource, degree of decision making available
to students, type of remediation offered, system allowing ‘customized
- New reflexivity forms deriving from mediation engineering. They
open the way to new possibilities as much at the conception level
then at the learning practices level. These reflexivity forms are
based upon the integration of conception process based on experience
and upon the experimentation of collaborative learning relations.
- Mutualisation: this community based approach to production-distribution
of pedagogic resources has been founded by teachers (i.e.:Sesamath).
It moves away from the educational publishing world towards the introduction
of “Creative Commons”. Founded on an open source approach
to learning, it is inscribing itself in a solidarity economy perspective.
- Generalized service assistance: the merging of cultural industries
and of services industries model entails a rethinking of valorisation
modes. The pay per use process (broker model) has been detected in
the educational field and may suit a long term strategy towards assistance.
in the film industry in France »
CNRS, Centre of European Sociology, France
This paper is based on an analysis of French cinema at the beginning
of the 2000s. French cinema is a diversified space. It can be described
as a continuum between a commercial pole and a more autonomous pole.
At the commercial pole, the films can achieve broad and immediate
success. At the more autonomous pole, the films are aimed at a limited
audience (at least in the short term) but they can be well-received
by critics or prestigious festivals. But French cinema is also a
cultural industry that is characterized by a structural dependence
on American cinema and on mass medias. Therefore, since the 1970s
and the 1980s, it has been affected by the transformations of Hollywood
and by the rise of commercial channels in France. These transformations
have had repercussions on the structures of French cinema. They have
reinforced commercial logics and they have been harmful to the most
«The new dominant definition of international news coverage.
The example of the French general-interest television channels
CNRS, Centre of European Sociology, France
The relative decline of “foreign policy” in the news
bulletins of the three major French television channels (TF1, France
2 et France 3) reveals the transformations that have occurred since
the second half of the 1980s in the way international news are treated
and in the place they are given in the national general-interest
media. The objective of this research is to describe and explain
the shrinking coverage of foreign policies or diplomatic activities
(international summits, Europeans elections, public policies, etc.).
To analyse this phenomenon, one must take into account the increasing
weight of economic and professional logics in the production of international
news to the detriment of traditional political logics, the reorganization
of labour within the French channels, as well as external factors
linked to the political and social spaces.
« Structure of the enterprise and the evolution of content:
the example of Le Seuil publications
CNRS, Culture and Urban Society, France
Waiting for abstract
« Reality Television at the heart of changes in Television system.
The North-American case
GRICIS, UQAM, Canada
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The current television system is for sure quite different
from the one that existed at the end of the 70’s. Ever since
then, it had and still have to face major challenges, such as the expansion
of transmission capacities and the resulting growth in the providing
of products and services, the invention of computer devices for the
large public, the re-regulation of the industrial environment, the
marginalization of the public service, the amazing development of the
internet, the increasing competition for advertizing revenues. Nevertheless,
television viewing remains the dominant activity among all cultural
practices for the large majority of people.
The popularity of reality television over the last few years, through
its diverse formulas, makes it an interesting case to analyze both
the problems that television businesses have to face and the strategies
that they develop to overcome them. In this respect, reality television
reveals the main transformations occuring in the north american television
One should not conclude that the whole strategy designed by the
television channels could be reduced to reality shows. It is certainly
of one of its major pieces but it is not the only one. To draw a
complete image, one should also take into account, for example, the
policy of information, of products buying and of home made production.
We will try to show here how a multifaceted standard like reality
shows provide a good example of the answers television channels are
giving to the big challenges they have to cope with.